Typhoid fever, also known as Typhoid, is a common worldwide illness, transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person, which contain the bacterium Salmonella enterica enterica, serovar Typhi. The bacteria then perforate through the intestinal wall and are phagocytosed by macrophages. The organism is a Gram-negative short bacillus that is motile due to its peritrichous flagella. The bacterium grows best at 37°C / 98.6°F – human body temperature.
This fever received various names, such as gastric fever, abdominal typhus, infantile remittant fever, slow fever, nervous fever, pythogenic fever, etc. The name of "typhoid" was given by Louis in 1829, as a derivative from typhus.
Pathophysiology of Typhoid Fever
Transmission of Salmonella typhi can be transmitted through various ways, which is known with 5 M of the Food Fingers, Fomitus (vomiting), Fly, and through Faeces.
Faeces and vomiting in patients with typhoid salmonella typhi can transmit the germ to others. Germs can be transmitted through the intermediary of flies, which fly will perch on the food to be eaten by healthy people. If the person is less attention to hygiene such as washing her hands and food contaminated with salmonella bacteria enter the body thypi a healthy person through the mouth. Then the germs get into the stomach, some bacteria will be destroyed by stomach acid and partly into the distal small intestine and reach the lymphoid tissue. In this lymphoid tissue breed germs, and then enter the bloodstream and reach the reticuloendothelial cells. Reticuloendothelial cells are then release germs into the bloodstream and cause bacteremia, bacteria then enter the spleen, small intestine and gallbladder.